Pulling Pine Seedlings (komatsu hiki)

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Pulling Pine Seedlings (komatsu hiki)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: New Year
***** Category: Observance


Click on any of the dolls on this link to see the details!
© http://evagenji.hp.infoseek.co.jp/co-2002-12-9.htm


On the first day of the rat, people used to go to the fields and pull out the first herbs and greens (nanakusa, see below), including small pine seedlings with the roots. This practise started in the late Nara period and enjoyed by the members of the aristocracy at court. It was a well-loved ceremony and appreas on many paintings, screens and scrolls.

Pines, which do not falter during frost and snow, are a symbol for long life. The small pine seedlings were thought to be sepecially auspicious.

The sliding door paintings of Reizei Tamechika 令泉為恭 (1823-64) in the temple Daijuji 大樹寺, Okazaki Town, are especially famous.


Kigo related to this event

pulling out small pine seeldings, komatsu hiki 小松引
..... pulling pine seeldings, matsubiki 松引
.... young pine, wakamatsu 若松

first day of the rat, hatsune 初子
day of the rat 子の日
playing at the first rat day, ne no hi no asobi 子の日の遊び, 子日遊び

"small princess pine", hime komatsu 姫小松 ひめこまつ
..... "pine like a tea whisk", chasen matsu 茶筅松

pines of the day of the rat, ne no hi no matsu 子の日の松
greens of the day of the rat, ne no hi gusa 子の日草

dress for the day of the rat, ne no hi goromo 子の日衣


WKD : The Asian Lunar Calendar Reference

Worldwide use

Things found on the way

Hatsune, not to be mixed up with

"the first sound", hatsune 初音,
name of a gentle lady in the Tale of Genji.


ne no hi shi ni miyako e ikan tomo mo gana

I would like to go to the capital
to enjoy the First Day of the Rat
but there is no friend to come with me . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve

Written in 1687 貞亨2年
Basho was again in his homeground, Iga Ueno, to spend the New Year.

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


kuge no te ni mame dekashitaru ne no ki kana

the hands of aristocrats
get corns ...
day of the rat

横井也有 Yokoi Yayuu

Aristocrats and their ladies were not used to manual labour of any kind.


Haiku by Issa

enoki made hiki-nukeretaru ne no hi kana

even a nettle tree
is uprooted...
first day of Rat

Pulling up a young pine tree on the first day of Rat is a custom that originated in China. Shinji Ogawa explains that its purpose was to bring good luck or longevity. Here, instead of a pine, someone indiscriminantly uproots a young nettle tree.

hakama kite shiba ni gorori to ne no hi kana

with his sword's sheath
curled to sleep on the lawn...
first day of Rat

ko matsu hiku hito tote hito no ogamu nari

yanking up
a little pine
he says a prayer

Issa (Tr. David Lanoue


-- in praise of cranes --

hito no hiku ko matsu no chiyo ya samisuran

humans pull up
young thousand-year pines --
cranes seem unimpressed

This hokku is from the tenth month (November) of 1820, when Issa was in and around his hometown. On 10/5 Issa's second son Ishitarō was born, and on 10/16 Issa slipped and fell and discovered he had become temporarily partially paralyzed, so he may have brushed this hokku using only one hand and arm. It seems to be a hokku for the upcoming new year, since it evokes the custom of going out into the woods on the first day of the rat in the new year and pulling up pine saplings, roots and all, which were then taken home and revered as a symbol of longevity, since pines were said, according to a tradition going back to ancient China, to live a thousand years. Issa seems skeptical of this custom, and this hokku looks at it from the point of view of cranes, which were also said by tradition to live a thousand years.
Since the headnote says the hokku is written in praise of cranes, the verb in the last line seems to take the cranes as its subject.

In the hokku people who have come to the woods to pull up young pines on the first day of the rat no doubt envy the cranes when they see the birds in or below a grown pine nearby or perhaps flying through the sky above, and they hope to emulate the long-lived birds by taking home young pines and displaying them in their homes as prayers for a long life and happiness. The cranes, however, do not seem to return the respect shown by the humans when they catch sight of the impressive birds.

According to Issa the cranes seem to regard the humans as intruders. Perhaps they make cries of dismay, or perhaps they look at the humans with hard, cold stares. In any case, Issa senses that they don't seem happy to see these strange humans pulling up young pine trees. Following tradition, Issa may be suggesting that the cranes seem to look down on these out-of-place humans so much that they pity them. They themselves naturally live a thousand years -- a symbol for many, many long bird-years -- but all these poor humans can do is crudely imitate cranes by pulling up young pines, thereby ensuring that the saplings never live live to anything like their full lifespan. Issa's suggestion seems to be that humans should stop harming pines and other natural objects and instead learn how to live naturally long lives the way cranes do.

Soon after this hokku in Issa's diary are placed two hokku that are evidently prayers for the vigorous growth of Issa's second son Ishitarō, so the above hokku may also indirectly express Issa's hope that his second son will grow up to be a naturally strong person who will lead a spontaneously long, healthy life like a crane. Unfortunately Issa's second son died in the first month of the next year.

Chris Drake

Related words

***** Pine (matsu, Japan)

***** Seven Herbs of Spring (haru no nanakusa) (Japan)

WKD: Ceremonies of Japan Nihon no Gyooji 日本の行事





Praying Mantis


Praying Mantis (kamakiri, Japan)

***** Location: Japan, other regions
***** Season: All Autumn, others see below
***** Category: Animal


praying mantis, praying mantid,
kamakiri 鎌切 Tenodora aridifolia
..... tooroo, tōrō 螳螂
..... ibomushiri いぼむしり, ibojiri いぼじり
kokamakiri 小かまきり(こかまきり) small praying mantis
..... ax insect, ono-mushi斧虫
..... praying insect, 祈り虫
"Chinese mantid" Paratenodera sinensis
kigo for all autumn


Kigo for Mid-Summer
mantis is born, tooroo umaru 蟷螂生まる

baby mantis, kokamakiri 小かまきり
..... tooroo no ko 蟷螂の子
In May and June the babies come out in great numbers. They already look like the parents, just in a smaller edition. They start lifting their little arms like a grown mantis, yet they are still all soft green.


Kigo for early winter

tooroo karu 蟷螂枯る (とうろうかる)
withering praying mantis

karetooroo 枯蟷螂(かれとうろう)


Most kids have tried keeping praying mantises at one time or another. There are a number of strangely shaped and colorful tropical mantises which are now being bred in captivity.

Read more about this interesting insect

Worldwide use


Things found on the way

Haibun by Carol Raisfeld

A few weeks ago, as it was turning cooler, spider webs were everywhere...early morning dew made them all sparkle. Passing our hinoki tree I heard the birds, looked up and saw this praying mantis caught in a giant web. My heart skipped a beat as I watched him struggle to free himself. He was huge and so beautiful. I ran into the house to get my gardening gloves and was back at the tree in record time.

Gently I took him from the web and placed him in one of the nearby flowerpots filled with impatiens and daisies. I knew the struggle took it's toll because he didn't move much and I have no idea how long he was trapped with no food or water. Hopefully he would drink the dew and water from the leaves in the flowerpot. I must have come out to look at him six or seven times that day ...

He seemed to be losing his color and I felt so sorry for him... and me. I just wanted to cry. I really wanted to remember him, so I got my camera and as I snapped this photo he looked up at me as if to say thanks for giving me a little more time.

In the morning I found him lying under the flowers... his final resting place. I still think about him and I'm glad I have this photo to share. Now I know he won't be forgotten ... I wonder if he knows.

early morning -
a twig in the flowerpot
turns to the sun

Published with permission
Original from November 2002 is here

... ... ...

And here is a reply from
"chibi" (pen-name for Dennis M. Holmes)

In a Taoist view -- the spider was deprived of an essential meal that would have helped perpetuate the spider family. We, as humans, are graced with both the curse and cure of transfering our values to and from nature. Indeed, Carol followed her heart. I too struggle to action through head and/or heart.

Now, my "scientific" mind probes what was happening to the mantis in Carol's story. I suspect that the spider had "bitten" the mantis and the mantis was dying from the poison. Also, the mantis had probably laid her eggs already and the end of her life was close. Perhaps, a story could be spun (excuse the spider's pun) that the mantis ate the spider that bit her? A Greek tragedy of the order of Sophocles could be written from this "natural" drama. The insect world is as alien to us humans as any UFO-ologist could imagine! In fact, if you look with an eye towards that relationship, the mantis face does look Area 51 familiar!!

(aside -- Dear Carol, your haibun is beautiful and I do not intend to deter from that. If I have in any way, I beg forgiveness. It did for me make me pause to appreciate the many layers of that moment. Thank you.)

... ... ...


It is indeed difficult to know when to interfere and when not, the Chinese WU WEI is one way of teaching us.

Do not do anything (if it is not in proper timing), my addidion in parenthesis.

deep silence -
the song of insects

... ... ...


It is very enlightening to read about the Taoist view, and it's true I deprived the spider family of an essential meal that would have helped perpetuate the spider family (now I feel badly for the spider family). But I had to follow my heart when I saw the plight of the mantis, thinking I could save her... I'm sure to disturb the balance of nature is not good, but we tend to interject human values into these situations.

I know after reading this I will think twice about intervening in 'natural' happenings. But when we have to follow our heart, I imagine that's a part of what makes us human after all.;-)

deep night
the silence of a spider

... ... ...


I think the death of this mantis was not in vain after all now. It gave rise to many haiku and food for thought. I hope many will read this and think about life and death, sun and rain, yin and yang more deeply.

Below is a note on the WU WEI philosopy.



Laozi’s (Lao Tse, Lao Tsu, Lao Dse) famous slogan has puzzled interpreters for centuries and has given rise to numerous interpretations. Arguably, Laozi knew it was paradoxical since the complete slogan is wu-wei and yet wu not-wei. The first character is not the main problem (see You-wu). Wu is simply "does not exist."

In this phrase, however, interpreters treat it as a negative prescription: "avoid wei." Chinese texts include many similar uses and we commonly read other declarative sentences in The Laozi as prescriptions. So, let us take it as saying that one should lack wei–whatever that is. Saying what wei is is the harder problem.

Textbook interpretations say wei means "purpose." In modern Mandarin, the character has two different tones. The fourth tone reading is usually translated as "for the sake of." In the second tone reading, the character would normally be translated as ‘to act.’ Thus, translators argue, wu-wei really means no purposive action. The whole slogan is "no purposive action and yet do act."

Read a scholarly excursion on the subject of WU WEI

................................... Zhuangzi (ChuangTzu 莊子)
Chad Hansen's Chinese Philosophy Pages


karikari to kooroo hachi no kao o kamu

crunching and munching -
the mantis chews on
the bee's face
(Tr. Gabi Greve)

karikari is an onomatopoetic expression, mimicking the sound of the mantis eating a bee, as it sounds to the Japanese ear.

Yamaguchi Seishi


> mantis ~
> making haiku
> in the still meadow

eric l. houck jr.


baby mantis
staggers along the pavement



Related words

***** Insects (mushi) (05) Autumn insects, aki no mushi




Power Stones (chikara ishi)


Power Stone, Strenght Stone (chikara ishi)
chikaraishi, chikara-ishi
***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Non-seasonal Topic
***** Category: Humanity


Since olden times, people like to compare their strengh. In Japan, at many temples and shrines there are heavy stones and the menfolk try to lift them as a special event during the annual autumn festival.

A priest famous for his physical strength, Benkei, has stones named in his honor, Benkei Ishi 弁慶の力石.

In Japan, it was also cutsom since old times to lift a stone after making a wish and judge from the feeling of the weight weather the wish was granted or not. These are the famous "Heavy-light Stones", which I have described in detail here.
Heavy-light Stones / Omokaru Ishi おもかる石. 重軽石.

This was a form of "Stone Oracle" ishi-ura 石占(いしうら).

At the Yokkaichi University, there is a group devoted to the study of these stones. They have a huge haiku collection, which I will introduce below.

The strong men of the village who could lift the heaviest stone for the longest time were of couse venerated by all and called Strong Men, chikaramochi 力持ち.

The oldest stones with inscriptions are found at the Hachiman Shrine at Kuki Town, Saitama Pref.

The information is taken from the site of Yokkaichi University.

Gabi Greve


External LINKS

全国の力石研究 (Study of power stones in Japan)
very extensive !
source : takashima

source : 力石・俳句・短歌・狂歌・川柳

. Japanese Reference .

. . . CLICK here for Photos from Shrines !
力石 神社

. . . CLICK here for Photos from Temples !
力石 寺

Worldwide use


Scottish Stone Lifting

Lifting stones are common throughout northern Europe, particularly Scotland, Iceland (where it is referred to as steintökin), Scandinavia and Northern England. They were usually heavy local stones, without any modification, with the challenge being to lift such a stone, proving your strength. Some of the stones are in fact so heavy that there has been no authenticated lift in modern times, only legend. Recently, lifting stones have often been incorporated into the World's Strongest Man competitions.

Clach cuid fir, Gaelic for "Manhood Stones", originate from Scotland and Clach-ultaich.

In Iceland, lifting stones were categorised into the fullsterkur ("full strength") weighing 155 kg (341 pounds), the hálfsterkur ("half strength") at 104 kg (228.8 pounds), hálfdrættingur ("weakling") at 49 kg (107.8 pounds) and amlóði ("Useless") at 23 kg (50.6 pounds).

Stone lifting is also a traditional sport in the Basque Country involving the lifting of stone, called harri jasoketa.

The stone carry or stone walk
is a traditional Scottish and Icelandic athletic event involving the carrying of large stones down the field of competition.

© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. . . CLICK here for Photos !


Switzerland and Spain

The weigh-lifting game by using stone is played in the mountain areas in Switzerland and Spain. Also in Japan, it has been played among the people since the Edo era (1603-1867), and it was called "chikara-ishi".

Chikara-ishi (Stone-lifting) in Awaji Isl., Hyogo Prefecture
Such chikara-ishi now found here and there at shrines and temples in the northern part of Awaji Isl., in Hyogo Prefecture. Those who did this stone-lifting were the young serf named otoko-shu.

In summer, in the evenings, when their work was over, they gathered in a meeting place or a shrine or the ground of a temple in twos and threes and they competed for strength by lifting or practiced carrying stones. But as the change of social structure brought about a decline in the number of people of the "otoko-shu-class", labor became mechanized and the way of recreation was changed, and stone ifting has ceased to be played and only the reminiscence of the past are shown in monuments.

Things found on the way

The Tenmangu Shrine in Dazaifu
is dedicated to Sugawara-no Michizane and he is said to be a descendant of Nomi-no Sukune, who is said to be the first rikishi (sumo wrestler) in Japanese history. There was a monument dedicated to Nomi-no Sukune inDazaifu Temmangu shrine.
In front of this monument, there are three large egg-shaped stones sitting on the ground. These are so-called"Chikara Ishi" or power stones. Men who are extremely proud of their own power used these stones to compete each other.
Adapted from this link


Togoshi Hachiman Jinja Shrine, Shinagawa, Tokyo
There are also stones within the grounds called “Sashi-Ishi (Chikara-Ishi).” It is said that during the Edo Period, people played sumo and young people used to compete to see who was the strongest by shouldering these stones. Today, a children’s sumo event is held in May.

Look at some photos from the area


At other shrines in Japan

Hokkaido, Yubari 北海道夕張郡栗山町中里

Hyogo prefecture, Tenman Jinja 天満神社

Ishikawa prefecture, Ubashi Jinja 菟橋神社

Niigata prefecture, Akai Jinja 赤井神社

Saitama prefecture, Hachiman Jinja 八幡神社

Tokyo Kibun Inari Jinja 紀文稲荷神社
Tokoy, Shinobu Jinja 志演神社


(Tr. Gabi Greve)

kuroguro to chikara no ishi ni tsuki terasu

oh so black
on the power stones
the moonshine

森本和子 Morimoto Kazuko


aki no semi taiki no shita no chikara ishi

autumn cicadas -
below the large tree
the power stones

渡辺僚子 Watanabe Ryooko


oo-kaki no hana no koboreshi chikara ishi

fallen flower petals
from the big persimmon tree -
power stones

伊藤和子 Itoo Kazuko

Yokkaichi University Study Group on Lifting Stones.
Takashima Shinsuke Collection

Related words

***** Heavy-light Stones / Omokaru Ishi
おもかる石. 重軽石





Plover (chidori)


Plover (chidori)

***** Location: Japan, other areas
***** Season: All Winter
***** Category: Animal


chidori 千鳥 (ちどり) plover
..... chidori 鵆(ちどり)
medai chidori 目大千鳥(めだいちどり)"plover with big eyes"
Charadrius mongolus, Mongolian Plover

daizen 大膳(だいぜん)black-bellied plover; gray plover
Pluvialis squatarola
munaguro 胸黒(むなぐろ)"black breast"
Pluvialis family of plovers

kochidori 小千鳥(こちどり)small plover
Charadrius dubius

shirochidori 白千鳥(しろちどり)white plover
Charadrius alexandrinus

ikaruchidori, ikaru chidori 鵤千鳥(いかるちどり)
Long-billed Plover, Charadrius placidus

chidoriashi, chidori ashi 千鳥足(ちどりあし)"legs of the plover", walk of the plover
(also used about a drunk person swaying around)

isochidori, iso chidori 磯千鳥(いそちどり)
plovers on the beach

..... hama chidori 浜千鳥(はまちどり)
..... ura chidori 浦千鳥(うらちどり)

shima chidori 島千鳥(しまちどり)"island plover"
kawa chidori 川千鳥(かわちどり)"river plover"

murachidori 群千鳥(むらちどり)group of plovers
..... tomochidori 友千鳥(ともちどり)"plover friends"

toochidori 遠千鳥(とおちどり)far away plover

yuuchidori, yuu chidori 夕千鳥(ゆうちどり)plover in the evening
..... sayo chidori 小夜千鳥(さよちどり)
yuunami chidori 夕波千鳥(ゆうなみちどり)plover in the evening waves

tsukiyo chidori 月夜千鳥(つきよちどり)
plover on a moonlit night

CLICK for more samples
chidorigake 千鳥掛(ちどりがけ) a kind of stitching

The word CHIDORI can also simply mean
"a lot of birds"
momochidori ももちどり- 百千鳥, momodori ももどり

Charadrius is a genus of plovers, a group of wading birds. They are found throughout the world.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Chidori in the Japanese wikipedia
With Latin names for easy reading.
Vanellus, Erythrogonys, Peltohyas, Anarhynchus, Charadrius , Eudromias ... Pluvialis
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Quote from the Japan Times, Aug. 21, 2006
Japan was once replete with wetlands. One of the ancient names for the country, after all, was Ashihara no kuni ("land of reed plains") or, more descriptively, O-yashima toyo-ashihara no mizuho no kuni ("land of many large islands with abundant reed plains of sparkling flowering tufts"). Deities were naturally involved. The land creator O-kuni nushi no mikoto was also called Ashihara shiko-o no mikoto ("muddy male deity out of the reed plains").

One poetic name of the reed, for that matter, is Naniwa-grass. Naniwa is an old name of Osaka, suggesting that the whole region was once synonymous with reeds. "You couldn't tell whether it was land or sea" in most of the region, as one source puts it by way of explaining an 8th-century poem. The standard set of Chinese characters applied to Naniwa ("wave-flower 難波") and the etymology of the name "fish garden" both point to the same thing.

Something similar may be said of much of the plain that makes up Tokyo today. I think of a haiku by Kobayashi Issa (1763-1827) simply because it captures so vividly the spectacle of a large flock of shorebirds suddenly flying up:

shiohama o hogo ni shite tobu chidori kana

"Crumpling the briny shore
into waste paper
plovers rise."

The Japan Times © All rights reserved
Read the full article in the WKD Archives.

Worldwide use

Things found on the way

The famous waka by Ki no Tsurayuki placed the plover frimly
in the season of winter.

思ひかね 妹がり行けば 冬の夜の
川風寒み 千鳥鳴くなり

omoikane imogari yukeba fuyu no yo no
kawakaze samumi chidori naku nari

Pressed by yearning
I set out hunting for her I love
And since the winter wind
Is cold as it blows up from the river
The plovers cry out in the night.

紀貫之 Ki no Tsurayuki
Tr. Earl Roy Miner


Family crests with "chidori"

Tee cup with family crest

source : antiquekimono
Yukata robe with waves and chidori pattern


Daruma ki ya chinpunkan o naku chidori

on Dharma's Death Day
spouting gibberish...
a plover

[translation by David Lanoue]


nesting area ...
new piping plover eggs
more or less spotted

Haiku and Photo © by Carol Raisfeld

Related words

***** The Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) is a medium-sized plover.

The adults have a brown back and wings, a white belly, and a white breast with two black bands. The rump is tawny orange. The face and cap are brown with a white forehead. The eyering orange-red. The chicks are patterned almost identically to the adults, and are precocial — able to move around immediately after hatching. The Killdeer frequently uses a "broken wing act" to distract predators from the nest.
It is named onomatopoeically after its call.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


George Swede

Here three words are spelled together not only to produce the richly resonant "double-haiku," graveyard/ dusk/ killdeer// graveyard/ us/ killdeer, but strikingly to suggest the enclosure (like letters by a word) of two or more people (a couple--or, perhaps, all of us) by an evening -- or some greater darkening.
source : grist/l&d/grumman





Pilgrimage (henro)

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Pilgrimage in Shikoku (henro)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Spring
***** Category: Observance


ZEN is well known in the West, but other forms of Japanese Buddhism are not.

To make the great pilgrimage around the island of Shikoku is not only reserved for believers of the Esoteric sects, but done by many people for many reasons, after retirement, after loosing a loved one or just for finding oneself as a youngster.

Many henro pilgrims carry a small haiku book and produce many beautiful haiku, some featured in the internet these days and some hidden in the pockets of the white robe, only shown to each other when meeting on the way.

The Shikoku Pilgrimage, henro 遍路, comprises many kigo for spring.
The cool climate of spring is the best time to walk the pilgims road in Shikoku.
But there are of course pilgrims all year round.

Pilgrm's Staff, the alter-ego of Kobo Daishi, henrotsue 遍路杖
Pilgrim's Hat, henrogasa, henro kasa, 遍路笠

the way a pilgrim walks, henromichi 遍路道

. Shikoku Henro 四国遍路 Pilgrimage to 88 Temples .
- Introduction -

. Stepping on the sacred sand of Shikoku
(sunafumi お砂踏み)


Pilgrimages since the Meiji Period (1868-1912 AD) have basically preserved the patterns that emerged during the Edo Era. Nonetheless, most will admit that modern-day Japanese pilgrimages are incredibly commercialized. Many Japanese localities and prefectures, hoping to attract religious tourists, have copied the traditional pilgrimage patterns to establish their own modern circuits for the 33 Kannon and 88 Holy Sites in Shikoku. Today pilgrims travel in luxury by coach, minibus or taxi in prearranged tours. Nearly all modern pilgrims purchase the amulets, hats, satchels, staffs, bells, and other religious paraphernalia that are sold in abundance by temples, shrines, prefectural bodies, cities, and travel agencies. In many ways the modern pilgrimage in Japan is a thinly veiled disguise for tourism, stripped in large part of religious meaning.

And let us not forget. Since the Edo Period, Shinto and Buddhist practices among the common folk have been aimed primarily at this-worldly benefits (genze riyaku, concrete rewards now). To many Japanese, Shinto and Buddhist faith is primarily involved with petitions and prayers for business profits, the safety of the household, success on school entrance exams, painless child birth, and other concrete rewards now, in this life. This type of popular worship -- one focused on "this-worldly" rewards -- can easily fall prey to commercialism.

Learn more about Pilgrims stamps books and all the equipment
a pilgrim needs on the road.


also about

junrei 巡礼 pilgrimage to other temples
junrei 順礼 kanji used by Issa


Pilgrims at temple Nr. 55, Nankoo-Boo in Imabari, Shikoku.

Life is a pilgrimage!
A poster to promote the Shikoku Pilgrimage.

© Photo Gabi Greve


giving alms to henro pilgrims,
o-settai, settai 摂待
. Kado-cha 門茶 "tea at the gate" .
giving tea as alms at the temple gate
kigo for early autumn

As the poor pilgrims walk along, they are supported by the local population, who see them as Kobo Daishi himself. They get a lot of food offerings, but also robes or money. Once I got a cotton towel to wipe the sweat. Even a ride in a car can be o-settai.
Some villages have established a small stall with tables and seats at the village entrance, where the housewifes take turn in praparing tea and sweets for the tired pilgrims.
Other households provide free beds for one night, together with a small meal in the monring, some for many generations. They have become friends with the regular pilgrims, who take the tour many times in their lives.

At one place in front of a temple, an old woman was handing out mikan oranges, greeting each pilgrim with a smile, saying "Welcome to this temple, dear Kobo Daishi san!". For her, we were all the same re-incarnations of Kukai.

O-Settai is a way for the local people to "collect good points" to improve their karma in the next re-incarnation.

If you receive a gift of this kind, you have to hand over one of your pilgrim's prayer slips.

settai in form of a shoulder massage

- the beginning of settai -
. Emon Saburō 衛門三郎 Emon Saburo .


Shikoku Fudo Pilgrims to 36 temples

My Pilgrims Guide
... group/Darumasan-Japan/message/424
... group/Darumasan-Japan/message/425

Learn more about Pilgrims stamps books and all the equipment a pilgrim needs on the road.

... www.onmarkproductions.com/
Mark Schumacher

A pilgrimage to a Shinto shrine is called: Mairi
 Three famous Shinto Pilgrimages

Worldwide use

WKD : Earth Pilgrims アースピルグリム 。 地球巡礼者 
Echan Deravy エハン・デラヴィ


fascinated by a distance
of spaces

- Shared by Gennady Nov -
Haiku Culture Magazine, 2013



Marija Bistrica: the Black Madonna with Child,
Our Lady of Bistrica, Queen of Croatia

The little town Marija Bistrica (literally Mary Bistrica) lies on the slopes of Mount Medvednica, about 15 km North-West of Zagreb. 16th century, about 5 ft., wood.
source : www.interfaithmary.ne

a pilgrimage -
new faces and new flowers
along the way

- Shared by Tomislav Maretic -
Haiku Culture Magazine , 2013



One of a Muslim's duties, as described in the Five Pillars of Islam, is to go on Hajj at least once during his or her lifetime. This is a pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca, Mekka) in Saudi Arabia. Approximately two million Muslims went in 1999, of which about one million were from Saudi Arabia, and 6,000 were from the U.S. Council on American-Islamic Relations estimated in 2006 that "some 10,000 American Muslims go on Hajj each year."
source :  www.religioustolerance.org

her pilgrimage bag -
for the eleventh night
a pink neglige

Heike Gewi Yemen, July 2008
Kigo Hotline


Joys of Japan, 2012

Mina and Arafah
pilgrimage exodus
heart and soul

- Shared by Mokhtar Sah Malik -

The towns of Mina and Arafah
source : www.hajtips.com/

haj -
with all my sins
I come to You

- Shared by Asni Amin -



kamakhya on nilachal~
pilgrims trekking together
to mother's womb

This was written during a visit to Kamakhya Temple near Guwahati in Assam (North East India) recently. It is on a mountain named Nilachal (meaning Blue Mountain). The deity ie. Goddess Kamakhya is worshipped here in the 'yoni' form. It is a great Shakti peeth and a seat of Tantric cult of Hinduism.

Sunil Uniyal, India, August 2008
Kigo Hotline

More Reference about the Temple
CLICK for more photos

Things found on the way


michinobe ni Awa no henro no haka aware

at the roadside
"The Grave of the Pilgrim from Awa" -
how touching

Takahama Kyoshi 高浜虚子
(written in 1935)

This grave is near Matsuyama at the temple hall Daishido 太子堂. On the memorial stone it says 阿波の遍路の墓 and Kyoshi only added the first and last part to this.
There are two stone steles to memorize this grave, slightly slanted, in the temple compound.


graves of the unknown -
pilgrims faces faded
into stone

Henro Pilgrims .. 遍路と無縁仏

Read some more of my Henro Haiku.
Shikoku Summer 2005

Gabi Greve


竹林 上り下りの 遍路道
takebayashi nobori kudari no henromichi

bamboo grove -
the pilgrim's path leads
up and down

Gabi Greve, Shiraishi Pilgrimage, June 2006


Early in his career, Santoka (1882-1940) was a henro.

autumn wind for all my walking . . . for all my walking . . .

"Where is the Way?" he was once asked.
"Under your feet," he replied.

Read a long article about pilgrims by Michael Hoffman .


atsusa ni mo makezu henro no michi nagaki

not even yielding
to the great heat ...
pilgrim on the road

Gabi Greve, July 2008, Fudo Pilgrimage Yamaguchi

Related words

Pilgrimage to Shinto Shrines
***** Pilgrimage to Kyoto (Kyoo mairi 京参り )
Ise Shrine Pilgrimage, O-Ise-Mairi, Ise Mairi 伊勢参り
O-kage mairi お陰参り (おかげまいり)
Konpira Shrine Pilgrimage, Konpira Mairi 琴平参り

***** Grave (haka)

***** SAIJIKI of Japanese Ceremonies and Festivals

***** Henro Pilgrims Culture and Haiku

***** . Gankake 願掛け wish-prayer, to make a wish .




Pinks (nadeshiko)

[ . BACK to worldkigo TOP . ]

Pink, Fringed Pinks, wild carnation
(nadeshiko, Japan)

***** Location: Japan, other areas
***** Season: Late Summer
***** Category: Plant


Walking my usual way toward the local shrine, the terraced rice fields below on the right, the pink-colored slopes on the left - yes, it is time for the PINK with the fringed petals and its fragrant smell.

This flower has been introduced to Japan from China and is known for its medical properties too. It comes in white, pink and lilac, altogether more than 300 varieties. It blooms from June to August and is also one of the seven herbs and flowers of Autumn, but as a kigo, it represents the late summer.

Seven Flowers of Autumn (aki no nanakusa).. Seven Herbs of Autumn

Its precious little flower with the fringed petals reminds us of a lover or beloved child and since the Heian period the characters 撫子 were used to represent this flower. Literally it means a child (ko 子) so sweet it is stroked (nade 撫).
The Chinese Nadeshiko (kara nadeshiko 唐撫子) was also introduced during the Heian period, but nowadays the Japanese Nadashiko (yamato nadeshiko 大和撫子) is more common.

This flower is the subject of many poems in the Manyoo-Shuu 万葉集 "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves" . It is a symbol of a flower planted in spring, bringing forth its flowers (the fruit of love) in autumn.
Some of the older names are tokonatsu (常夏), literally "endless summer" and omohigusa, omoigusa (思草).

Let us look at some other Japanese names for this plant.

fringed pink (Dianthus superbus) nadeshiko 撫子
kawara nadeshiko 河原撫子 (.it. pink by the river)
hime nadeshiko 姫撫子 (lit. Princess Pink)
shimofuri nadeshiko 霜降撫子 (lit. falling frost pink)
Shinano nadeshiko 信濃撫子 (Dianthus shinanensis)
fuji nadeshiko 藤撫子 (lit. Wisteria pink)
kumoi nadeshiko 雲井撫子
takane nadeshiko 高嶺撫子(lit. pink of high mountains) (Dianthus superbus var. speciosus),
hama nadeshiko 浜撫子(lit. pink on the beach) (Dianthus japonicus)

English names: superb pink, wild carnation
German names: Prachtnelke, wilde Nelke

Yamato Nadeshiko 大和撫子, a comely Japanese maiden
relates a bit to this one
Yamato-damashii 大和魂, the Japanese spirit

Gabi Greve

source : facebook Ukiyo-e & sumi-e

"Three Young Women in a Garden where Nadeshiko Pinks are Growing"
Kuwagata Keisai (also known as Kitao Masayoshi) (1764-1824)


kigo for early summer

furokkusu フロックス Phlox
kikyoo nadeshiko 桔梗撫子(ききょうなでしこ)
"bellflower nadeshiko"

. oiransoo 花魁草 Phlox paniculata .


kigo for mid-summer

mushitori nadeshiko 虫取撫子 (むしとりなでしこ) "insect catching nadeshiko"
Sweet William catchfly, None-So-Pretty
haetori nadeshiko 蠅取撫子(はえとりなでしこ)
komachisoo 小町草(こまちそう)
Silene armeria

sakichiku 石竹 (せきちく) China pink
lit. "stone bamboo"
kara nadeshiko 唐撫子(からなでしこ)"Chinese nadeshiko"
tokonatsu 常夏 (とこなつ)
Dianthus chinensis


Yamato Nadeshiko 大和撫子

is referred to by Japanese as a woman with attributes that were considered traditionally desirable from the perspective of a male dominated society; generally ascribed to people with traditional upbringings. It is an extremely broad, but complicated Japanese aesthetic concept. The name is believed to originate from the willowy Dianthus superbus or the Japanese Nadeshiko flower.

"A Japanese woman (with all the traditional graces); an ideal Japanese woman."
" A figure of speech for the beauty of Japanese women who are neat and tidy."

Also known as an ideal Japanese woman, it basically revolves around acting for the benefit of the family and following the instructions or acting in the best interest of patriarchal authority figures. Virtues include: loyalty, domestic ability, wisdom, and humility.

During World War II, the idea of Yamato Nadeshiko was popularized as a kind of national propaganda by the Japanese government. A Yamato Nadeshiko should be able to endure all the pain and poverty of life for her husband (a soldier) and the country, and should always be ready to fight with naginata or tae yari and to be ready to die at any time, for her country or to keep her chastity.
 © More in the WIKIPEDIA


Japanese Link with poem and photo

Worldwide use

Things found on the way

from the Manyoo-Shuu (万葉集)

Flowers blossoming
in autumn fields -
when I count them on my fingers
they then number seven.

The flowers of bush clover,
eulalia, arrowroot,
pink, patrinia,
also, mistflower
and morning faces flower.

Yamanoue Okura (C. 660 - 733)
Manyoshu: 8:1537-8

WKD : Seven Herbs of Autumn (aki no nanakusa)


Sei Shoonagon in the Makura Sooshi


清少納言(せいしょうなごん) 枕草子


wild carnation -
the fragile features of
this old courtesan

 © Photo and Haiku Gabi Greve, 2007
LOOK at the Courtesan HERE !


昭和が生んだ日本語 Shōwa ga unda Nihongo
遠藤織枝 Endo Orie
with an essay about the modern metaphorical use of "Yamato nadeshiko" to describe women.

There is also a discussion about nadeshiko in the PMJS forum (November 2016).

The nadeshiko (nadesikwo) 撫子|瞿麦 was apparently a favorite flower of the poet Otomo no Yakamochi.
- source : PMJS listserve -

Tale of Genji
The “little pink” (Yamato nadeshiko) is the future Tamakazura.

nadeshiko no hana = Autumn Tea Flowers - Urasenke


. Nadeshiko Japan なでしこジャパン 
Japan women's national football team .


has at least 13 haiku about this flower.

nadeshiko ya jizô bosatsu no ato saki ni

blooming pinks
behind and in front
of Saint Jizo

.. .. ..

nadeshiko ya hitotsu saite wa tsuyu no tame

one is blooming
thanks to the dew

Tr. David Lanoue

.. .. ..

nadeshiko no naze oreta zo yo oreta zo yo

Why did the pink break, oh why did it break?
Translated Max Bickerton

Issa lamenting the death of his child (1819)

Commentaries on Basho- :Fifth; The Octopus Pot

.. .. .. .. ..

nadeshiko no shôgatsu itase hototogisu

it's New Year's
for the blooming pinks...

Haiga by Nakamura Sakuo


© Photos by Gabi Greve, 2005


hagi kikyo nadeshiko nando moe ni-keri

bush clover, bellflowers
and also pinks
have sprouted

Masaoka Shiki  正岡子規


Nadeshiko hokku by
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

nadeshiko ni kakaru namida ya kusu no tsuyu

KUSU refers to the warrior Kusunoki Masashige 楠正成 (1294 - 1336).

Translation and MORE about
. Kusunoki Masashige 楠木正成 .

. Basho Hokku about Tears .


nadeshiko no / atsusa wasururu / no-giku kana

. shimo no nochi nadeshiko sakeru hioke kana .

. youte nen nadeshiko sakeru ishi no ue .
yoote nen / yoote nenmu

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


kasane to wa yae nadeshiko no na naru beshi

must be another name
for "Eightfold Pink"

Sora, Oku no Hosomichi

In Sora's poem, Nadeshiko, the pink, is the season word indicating summer. Although this flower is numbered among the seven grasses of autumn, in haikai it is considered to indicate summer.

Since ancient times there have been many examples in literature of children named
Nadeshiko; we see it used in The Tale of Genji in the "Broom Tree" chapter. Because this name is one of charm and beauty, Sora did not expect to find it in the rustic countryside, and consequently he took it to mean, "layered," a more commonplace word pronounced the same way.

Realizing his mistake, he combined the words to create "yae nadeshiko," the "layered pink." Although there is no such flower as the "layered pink," by using the poem to acknowledge his own mistake and correct it, Sora demonstrates his own sensibility. This notion of finding rude country people more esthetically senitive than expected
is a leitmotif throughout this work in particular and Japanese literature in general.

Evidently meeting this little girl named Kasane in such an auspicious way greatly affected Basho for the memory of the encounter stayed with him. He dscribes the meeting in other places besides this diary, and once, when a friend asked him to suggest a name for his newborn daughter, gave Kasane as his recommendation. On another occasion, Basho recalled this episode and told Sora that if he had had a little girl of his own, he would have named her Kasane.
 Tr. Ad G. Blankestijn

Oku no Hosomichi - - - - Station 6 - Nasu 那須 - - -
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

Related words

***** Rock Carnation, ganpi がんぴ岩菲
Thousand-handed rock carnation, senju ganpi 千手岩菲
It looks like a thousand-handed Kannon Bosatsu.

kigo for early summer

Lychnis gracillima
Country of origin is China. It looks very similar to the wild carnation (nadeshiko). It flowers in may and june, usually with white flowers. The petals are thinly lapped with deep cuts. These plants are a bit smaller than the wild carnation, but very tough and live in rough natural environments, especially in high mountain areas.

Click HERE to look at some photos !


***** Carnation (kaaneeshon カーネーション)
kigo for early summer
Carnation from Holland, oranda sekichiku おらんだ せきちく 和蘭石竹
.... oranda nadeshiko 和蘭撫子
Dianthus caryophyllus

This flower is the most common gift for Mother's Day. Its origin is South Europe and Western Asia.
Legend says that when Jesus was killed, his mother Maria cried and her tears fell on the ground, where the carnations would then start to grow. The most common colors are red and white.

Click HERE to look at some !

Mother’s Day
this year
the white carnation

Ellen Compton

***** Mother's Day


***** WKD : Seven Herbs of Autumn (aki no nanakusa)

11 nadeshiko Nelke

© Photo Gabi Greve, Summer 2010


fukuro nadeshiko 袋撫子 (ふくろなでしこ )

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Late Spring
***** Category: Plant

lit. "nadeshiko with a bag". Silene pendula, Nodding Catchfly

another name for oomantema おおまんてま


kasumisoo 霞草 (かすみそう)
misty plant
mure nadeshiko 群撫子(むれなでしこ)"crowd of pinks"
kogome nadeshiko こごめなでしこ

Gypsophila elegans. in pink, white etc.


- #nadeshiko -


Pheasant's eye (fukujusoo)


Pheasant's Eye (fukujusoo, Japan)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: New Year
***** Category: Plant


Pheasant's eye, fukujusō, 福寿草
New Year's Day Plant,
... ganjitsusoo, ganjitsusō 元日草
... tsuitachisoo 朔日草

Adonis amurensis, Family: Ranunculaceae. Crowfoot
Adonis annua

Grows in many mountainous areas of Japan. It begins to show new leaves in February or March and flowers with small bright yellow blossoms of 10 to 20 petals with a strong glow. Since the flowering time fell in the New Year season according to the lunar calendar, it was used as a decoration for the New Year, hence the name.

Even now some farmers grow it especially to flower for the First of January.

In the Edo period, it was already artificially grown and sold in small pots, with petals of white, cream and red flowers, even double-petals (yae 八重咲き).

The name actually means : Plant of good fortune and long life, "prosperity grass" or "longevity grass", so it was very auspicious for the New Year celebrations.

Gabi Greve




Great page with photos

Worldwide use

Adonis amurensis

Adonis vernalis

Things found on the way


ôyuki o kabutte tatsu ya fukuju kusa

covered by the big snow
yet they stand...
New Year's grasses

(Tr. David Lanoue)
Haiga by Nakamura Sakuo



asahi sasu rooshi ga ie ya fukujusoo

morning sunshine
on the old Zen teacher's home -
Pheasant's eye in bloom

Buson 与謝蕪村
Tr. Gabi Greve


jimen kara sora ga hajimaru fujukusoo

from the earth
the sky begins ...
Pheasant's eye 

Miyasaka Shizuo 宮坂静生 (1937 - )
He taught the NHK haiku lessons for two years.


hi no ataru mado no shooshi ya fukujusoo

the sun shines bright
on the window panes ...
Pheasant's eye

Matsui Kafuu 永井荷風 (1879 - 1959)


Related words

***** Fern and the Seven Herbs of Spring
Kigo for the New Year



Women Buying Potted Plants from a Street Vendor

Torii Kiyonaga 鳥居 清長 (1752–1815)

. Edo Culture via Ukiyo-E .
- Join us on facdbook -





Pheasant (kiji)


Pheasant (kiji)

***** Location: Japan, other areas
***** Season: All Spring
***** Category: Animal


The pheasant has been introduced to Japanese literature since olden times. He is mentioned in the Kojiki 古事記  and Nihon Shoki 日本書記  and also in the Manyoo'shuu 万葉集 Poetry Almanach.
It is the national bird of Japan.

He represents a good omen, prowess and daring, since he eats poisonous snakes too. He is also said to be very dilligent and able to predict an earthquake. He is one of the companions of the fortious hero Momotaroo, the Peach Boy, on the way to defeat the demons.

He is also well loved by the gourmets, since his meat is delicious. In my part of the mountains, hunters often go to the forest before dinner and then delight in a barbeque, noodle soup or other local pheasant specialities.

The most common in Japan is maybe the Ring-necked Pheasant (Chinese Pheasant), Phasianus colchicus. He can be found all year long, but in spring his voice is most often heared, so it is a kigo for haiku.

Gabi Greve

pheasant, kiji 雉
..... kigisu, kigishi 雉子
hollering of the pheasant, kiji no hororo 雉のほろろ

"mountain bird", yamadori 山鳥

copper pheasant - Syrmaticus soemmerringi
... bigger than the pheasant. It is known for its long tail
"yamadori no o" 山鳥の尾 in many waka poems.

Voices of an animal in HAIKU


There are about 50 species of Pheasants.
Practically all of them are native to Central Asia, Ukraine, and China. They have been introduced and widely established in various areas. Romans brought Pheasants into Europe. According to mythology Argonauts took them from the river Phasis in Colchis. Egyptian Pharaohs kept Pheasants; Alexander the Great brought them to Greece from Asia.

Some species first came into North America and then to Europe. At present Pheasants are found in a variety of habitats from the snowy Himalayas to the jungles of Indonesia.
Pheasant is the state bird of South Dakota.

Worldwide use


In Europe, pheasant hunting is only for the Royals. The pheasants are driven to the hunters. "Common Folks" walk the fields and flush the birds so that they fly over the "Royals" shooting stations.





North America

A kiji is a pheasant, the Asian ones come in a variety of colors and sizes, some with magnificent long tails, though no where near the peacock in size. When I was a zookeeper, Asian pheasants were also in my care. They were not particularly noisy at the zoo, but they did make noise.

There are no North American native pheasant species. The ring-necked pheasant which many regard as an 'American pheasant' was introduced from Asia in the 1800s.

M. Kei
Editor of the Chesapeake Bay Saijiki

Things found on the way

. Kiji-guruma きじ車 pheasant on wheels
Pheasant toys from Kyushu



yakeno no kigisu yoru no tsuru 焼け野の雉子 夜の鶴
pheasant in a burning field, crane in the evening

a mother's heart is always with her children.

Legend knows that a pheasant mother will run back and save her chicks if she discovers the fields around her nest are burning.


父母の しきりに戀し 雉子の声
(ちちははの しきりにこいし きじのこえ)
chichi haha no shikiri ni koishi kiji no koe

Father, mother dear!
I hear as I mourn for you –
hear the pheasant's cry!

The voice of the pheasant;
how I longed
for my dead parents!

Tr. Blyth

Written in 1688, Basho age 45
at Mount Koyasan 高野山. He had been to Iga Ueno to celebrate the important 33th death anniversary of his father.

This is a reference waka by Gyoki Bosatsu 行基菩薩

yamadori no horohoro to koe kikoeba
chichi zo omou haha ka to zo omou

to the cry of a pheasant
I wonder:
Could it be my father?
Could it be my mother?

source : Makoto Ueda

Oi no Kobumi 笈の小文
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

. Gyoki Bosatsu (Gyooki Bosatsu) 行基菩薩 .   

hebi kuu to kikeba osoroshi kiji no koe

when it eats a snake
the dreadful voice
of a pheasant

Written in 1690 元禄3年.

osoroshi 恐ろしい dreadful, terrible
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


oka no kiji sagi no mimochi o urayamu ka

hilltop pheasant
are you jealous of the heron's

akimeshi wa karasu toru to ya kiji no naku

"the raven took
all the fried rice!"
announces the pheasant

Issa has about 70 haiku about the pheasant.

Check out the Database of David Lanoue !

. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .

More about the Pheasant in Japanese Literature.


- - - - - Yosa Buson - - - - -

yamadori no eda fumi-kayuru yonaga kana

A mountain bird
Shifting on a branch from foot to foot--
A long night.

Tr. Nelson/Saito

A mountain pheasant
moves his feet on the branch--
the long night!

Tr. Sawa/ Shiffert

yamadori no o o fumu haru no irihi kana

The setting spring sun
has been treading on the tail
of the copper pheasant.

Tr. Blyth

stepping on
a copper pheasant's tail -
spring sunset

Tr. Haldane

A mountain pheasant,
treading on its tail,
the springtime's setting sun.

Tr. Henderson

hageyama ya nani ni kakurete kiji no koe

these barren hills -
where is it hidden
the call of a pheasant

Tr. Gabi Greve

hi kururu ni kiji utsu haru no yamabe kana

At sunset
The sound of pheasant shooting
Near the spring mountainside.

Tr. Miura

kiji naku ya saka o kudari no tabi yadori

a pheasant calls -
I walk downhill
looking for a lodging

Tr. Gabi Greve

kiji uchite kaeru ieji no hi wa takashi
kiji utte kaeru ieji no hi wa takashi

With a shot pheasant,
going back home on the path,
the sun still high.

Tr. Sawa/ Shiffert

osoki hi ya kiji no ori-iru hashi no ue

Daylight longer!
a pheasant has fluttered down
onto the bridge.

Tr.Sawa/ Shiffert

. kameyama e kayou daiku ya kiji no koe .
Kameyama in Kyoto

boke no kage ni kao tagui sumu kigisu kana

A face shaped similar
to a flowering quince, the pheasant
that dwells here!!

Buson has made the astute observation that the face of a pheasant is similar to flowers that the quince blooms.
Masaoka Shiki mentioned this haiku as one of the better 'pictorial' haiku that Buson wrote. It is easy to understand the visual aspect of this haiku, but I think that it is important to consider that to write this 'picture' out, Buson used to a simile to do it. And the word 'sumu' (dwells) really is padding that adds nothing to the visual effect of the haiku. The use of the old character 㒵 (kao - face) does add to the visual effectiveness of the haiku because it physically inserts the face of pheasant and the quince flowers into the words.
This count 18. Since Buson could have used the shorter word 'kiji' for pheasant, instead of the older word 'kigisu', you have to wonder what linguistic considerations went into making this count one over.
- source : James Karkoski on facebook -

きじ啼や草の武藏の八平氏 - hachi heiji - The Hachi Clan

. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .


the pheasant flies but
beauty's feathered sheen still shines
in the seer's eye

Kalamu ya Salaam

This example is a haiku which leans heavily on the use of the long "ssss" sound and on its complement, the long "ffff" sound, both of which contrast with the short and abrupt "but" and "eye." Notice, even though "but" and "eye" fall at end points, the rhyme is set up with the half rhyme of "flies" and "eye." If you recite it alould you will immediately hear the connections.
My experimentation has been to go beyond what the poem means and also dig deeply into how the poem sounds. Most haiku do not focus on the sounding element precisely because most haiku don't use a Black aesthetic.

Read this interesting article (L)


early morning -
a pheasant hollers
right above me

Gabi Greve, December 2008

Related words

***** Peacock, kujaku 孔雀 


. Legends about animals 動物と伝説 .

. pheasant predicting an earthquake .

- reference : nichibun yokai database -
36 to explore


Pheasant as Food
WASHOKU ... Japanese Food SAIJIKI